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In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.

Goa's capital is Panaji, known as Panjim in English and earlier called Pangim in Portuguese times, and known in the local language as Ponnje is the administrative capital of Goa lying on the left bank of the Mandovi near Panaji. Goa's legislative assembly building is located in Porvorim – the seat of the Goa assembly, which lies across the Mandovi River. The state's judicial hierarchy relates to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, which is the capital of Goa's neighbouring Maharashtra state), as the state comes under the Bombay High Court. A bench of the High Court is present in Panaji. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Uniform Civil Code, based on the Napoleonic code, has been retained by the Goa government.

Goa has a unicameral legislature consisting of a forty member Legislative Assembly, headed by a Chief Minister who wields the executive power. The present Chief Minister of Goa is Mr. Laxmikant Parsekar and the Leader of Opposition is Mr. Pratapsingh Rane. In the 2012 election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) defeated the Indian National Congress government in Goa, led by Chief Minister Digambar Kamat. The election was won by the BJP-Maharashtrawadi Gomantak alliance which won 24 seats in the 40-seat assembly. The Bharatiya Janata Party won 21 seats, while the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party won 3 seats. Manohar Parrikar, leader of the BJP, was sworn in as Chief Minister of Goa on 9 March 2012.

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